نوشته شده توسط سيداحمدخزايي دسته: verbs
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Verbs

 Verbs in English have four basic parts:

Base form

-ing form

Past tense

Past participle

work

working

worked

worked

play

playing

played

played

listen

listening

listened

listened

Most verbs have past tense and past participle in –ed (worked, played, listened). But many of the most frequent verbs are irregular.

ادامه مطلب: Verbs
 
نوشته شده توسط سيداحمدخزايي دسته: verbs
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irregular verbs

 Most verbs have past tense and past participle in –ed ( worked, played, listened). But many of the most frequent verbs are irregular:

ادامه مطلب: irregular verbs
 
نوشته شده توسط سيداحمدخزايي دسته: verbs
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question forms

 We make questions by:

 1: moving an auxiliary to the front of the clause:

Everybody is watching

>> 

Is everybody watching?

They had worked hard

>> 

Had they worked hard?

He's finished work

>> 

Has he finished work?

Everybody had been working hard

>> 

Had everybody been working hard?

He has been singing

>> 

Has he been singing?

English is spoken all over the world

>> 

Is English spoken all over the world?

The windows have been cleaned

>> 

Have the windows been cleaned?

2: … or by moving a modal to the front of the clause:

They will come

>> 

Will they come?

He might come

>> 

Might he come?

They will have arrived by now

>> 

Will they have arrived by now?

She would have been listening

>> 

Would she have been listening?

The work will be finished soon

>> 

Will the work be finished soon?

They might have been invited to the party

>> 

Might they have been invited to the party?

ادامه مطلب: question forms
 
نوشته شده توسط سيداحمدخزايي دسته: verbs
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verb phrases

 The verb phrase in English has the following forms:

1) a main verb:

 

Verb

 

We
I
Everybody
We

are
like
saw.
laughed.

here.
it
the accident
 

 

ادامه مطلب: verb phrases
 
نوشته شده توسط سيداحمدخزايي دسته: verbs
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present tense

 There are two tenses in English – past and present.

The present tenses in English are used:

  • to talk about the present
  • to talk about the future
  • to talk about the past when we are telling a story in spoken English or when we are summarising a book, film, play etc.


There are four present tense forms in English:

Present simple:

I work

Present continuous:

I am working

Present perfect:

I have worked

Present perfect continuous:

I have been working


We use these forms:

  • to talk about the present:

He works at McDonald’s. He has worked there for three months now.
He is working at McDonald’s. He has been working there for three months now.
London is the capital of Britain.

  • to talk about the future:
ادامه مطلب: present tense
 
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past tense

 There are two tenses in English – past and present.

The past tense in English is used:

  • to talk about the past
  • to talk about hypotheses – things that are imagined rather than true.
  • for politeness.

There are four past tense forms in English:

Past simple:

I worked

Past continuous:

I was working

Past perfect:

I had worked

Past perfect continuous:

I had been working

We use these forms:

  • to talk about the past:

He worked at McDonald’s. He had worked there since July..
He was working at McDonald’s. He had been working since July.

  • to refer to the present or future in conditions:

He could get a new job if he really tried.
If Jack was playing they would probably win.

ادامه مطلب: past tense
 
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perfective aspect

 We use the present perfect to show that something has continued up to the present

They’ve been married for nearly fifty years.
She has lived in Liverpool all her life.

… or is important in the present:

I’ve lost my keys. I can’t get into the house.
Teresa isn’t at home. I think she has gone shopping.

We use the present perfect continuous to show that something has been continuing up to the present:

It’s been raining for hours.
We’ve been waiting here since six o’clock this morning.

We use the past perfect to show that something continued up to a time in the past:

When George died he and Anne had been married for nearly fifty years.

... or was important at that time in the past:

I couldn’t get into the house. I had lost my keys.

ادامه مطلب: perfective aspect
 
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continuous aspect

 Both tenses have a continuous form. These continuous tenses are formed with the verb be and the –ing form of the verb:

We use continuous aspect:

  • for something happening before and after a given time.

He’s getting on the train. [before and after the moment of speaking]
It was quarter past ten. We were watching the news on television.

  • for something continuing before and after another action:

Mother will be cooking the dinner when we get home.
We were waiting for the bus when it started to rain.

  • for something continuing for some time:

Everybody will be waiting for us.
They had been working hard all day.

  • for something happening again and again:

They’ve been doing that every day this week.

ادامه مطلب: continuous aspect
 
نوشته شده توسط سيداحمدخزايي دسته: verbs
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active and passive voice

 Transitive verbs have both active and passive forms:

active

 

passive

The hunter killed the lion.

>> 

The lion was killed by the hunter.

Someone has cleaned the windows

>> 

The windows have been cleaned


The passive forms are made up of the verb be with a past participle:

 

be

past participle

 

English

is

spoken

all over the world

The windows

have been

cleaned

 

Lunch

was being

served

 

The work

will be

finished

soon

They

might have been

invited

to the party


We sometimes use the verb get to form the passive:

Be careful with the glass. It might get broken.
Peter got hurt in a crash.

If we want to show the person or thing doing the action we use by:

She was attacked by a dangerous dog.

ادامه مطلب: active and passive voice
 
نوشته شده توسط سيداحمدخزايي دسته: verbs
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to + infinitive

 We use the to-infinitive:

• to express purpose (to answer "Why...?"):

He bought some flowers to give to his wife.
He locked the door to keep everyone out.

We sometimes say in order to or in order not to:

We set off early in order to avoid the traffic.
They spoke quietly in order not to wake the children

… or we can say so as to or so as not to:

We set off early so as to avoid the traffic.
They spoke quietly so as not to wake the children.

• after certain verbs (seeverbs followed by infinitive), particularly verbs of thinking and feeling:

choose, decide, expect, forget, hate, hope, intend, learn, like, love, mean, plan, prefer, remember, want, would like, would love

… and verbs of saying:

agree, promise, refuse

They decided to start a business together.
Remember to turn the lights out.

 

ادامه مطلب: to + infinitive
 
نوشته شده توسط سيداحمدخزايي دسته: verbs
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-ing forms

 We can use the -ing form of the verb:

• as a noun:

I love swimming.
Swimming is very good for your health.
You can get fit by swimming regularly.

-ing nouns are nearly always uncount nouns

  • as an adjective:

The main problem today is rising prices.
That programme was really boring.
He saw a woman lying on the floor.

Because the -ing noun or adjective is formed from a verb it can have any of the patterns which follow a verb, for example:

  • ... an object:

I like playing tennis.

ادامه مطلب: -ing forms
 
نوشته شده توسط سيداحمدخزايي دسته: verbs
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talking about the present

1. We use the present simple:

  • to talk about something happening regularly in the present:

The children come home from school at about four.
We often see your brother at work.

  •  to talk about something happening continually in the present:

They live next door to us.
He works for the Post Office.

  •  to talk about things which are generally true:

Water boils at 100 degrees Celsius.
The Nile is the longest river in Africa.

2. We use the present continuous:

  • to show that something in the present is temporary:

We are living in a rented flat at present.

ادامه مطلب: talking about the present
 
نوشته شده توسط سيداحمدخزايي دسته: verbs
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talking about the past

 1 Talking about past events and situations:

We use the past simple:

  • when we are talking about an event that happened at a particular time in the past

We arrived home before dark
The film started at seven thirty.

  • when we are talking about something that continued for some time in the past

Everybody worked hard through the winter.
We stayed with our friends in London.

When we are talking about something that happened several times in the past we use

  • the past simple:

Most evenings we stayed at home and watched DVDs.
Sometimes they went out for a meal.

  • … or used to
ادامه مطلب: talking about the past
 
نوشته شده توسط سيداحمدخزايي دسته: verbs
نمایش از 07 تیر 1393 بازدید: 75
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talking about the future

1. When we know about the future we normally use the present tense.

  • We use the present simple for something scheduled or arranged:

We have a lesson next Monday.
The train arrives at 6.30 in the morning.
The holidays start next week.
It is my birthday tomorrow.

  • We can use the present continuous for plans or arrangements:
ادامه مطلب: talking about the future
 

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