نوشته شده توسط سيداحمدخزايي دسته: Agriculture Essays ( مقالات كشاورزي)
نمایش از 08 آبان 1391 بازدید: 121
پرینت

Characterization of the cross-resistance mechanism to herbicides inhibiting acetyl coenzyme-A carboxylase in itchgrass
(Rottboellia cochinchinensis) biotypes from Bolivia
W. Avilaa, A. Bolan˜ osa, B.E. Valverdeb,
aPrograma de Maestrı´a en Proteccio´n Vegetal, Departamento de Parasitologı´a Agrı´cola, Universidad Auto´noma Chapingo, C.P. 56230, Me´xico
bDepartment of Agricultural Sciences, The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Thorvaldsensvej 40, DK-1871,
Frederiksberg C, Copenhagen, Denmark
Received 2 February 2006; accepted 28 March 2006

 Abstract
Whole-plant greenhouse bioassays and absorption, translocation, and metabolism experiments were conducted to investigate the resistance and cross resistance patterns and resistance mechanism of itchgrass (Rottboellia cochinchinensis) biotypes from Bolivia to herbicides that inhibit the enzyme acetyl coenzyme-A carboxylase. Varying levels of resistance to haloxyfop-R-methyl and sethoxydim were found in the biotypes designated as San Pedro and Yapacanı´ and cross-resistance among graminicides was confirmed.

 

ادامه مطلب: Characterization of the cross-resistance mechanism to herbicides inhibiting acetyl coenzyme-A...
 
نوشته شده توسط سيداحمدخزايي دسته: Agriculture Essays ( مقالات كشاورزي)
نمایش از 08 آبان 1391 بازدید: 117
پرینت

 

 

 

 

The metabolism of a novel herbicide ZJ0273 in oilseed rape and crickweed
Ling Yue a,b, Wenyuan Qi b,⇑, Qingfu Ye a,⇑, Haiyan Wanga, Wei Wang a, Ailiang Han a a Institute of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences, Key Laboratory of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences of Ministry of Agriculture and Zhejiang Province, Zhejiang University Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310029, PR China
b Crop Institute, Shanghai Academy of Agriculture Science, Shanghai 201403, PR China

a b s t r a c t

Experiments were conducted to investigate the metabolism of a novel herbicide ZJ0273 in the seedlings of the susceptible crickweed and tolerant oilseed rape. Six metabolites of ZJ0273 were identified in crickweed
seedlings, compared to 8 metabolites in oilseed rape.

ادامه مطلب: The metabolism of a novel herbicide ZJ0273 in oilseed rape and crickweed
 
نوشته شده توسط سيداحمدخزايي دسته: Agriculture Essays ( مقالات كشاورزي)
نمایش از 08 آبان 1391 بازدید: 129
پرینت

 Electroreduction mechanism of 8-quinolinecarboxylic acid and the herbicide
quinmerac on mercury electrodes
Sara Pintadoa, Mercedes Ruiz Montoyab, José Miguel Rodríguez Melladoa,∗
a Departamento de Química Física y Termodinámica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Campus de Excelencia Internacional Agroalimentario, CEIA3, sede de Rabanales, edificio Marie
Curie, Universidad de Córdoba, E-14014 Córdoba, Spain
b Departamento de Ingeniería Química, Química Física y Química Orgánica, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, Campus de Excelencia Internacional Agroalimentario, CEIA3, sede
de El Carmen, Universidad de Huelva, E-21071 Huelva, Spain

 

a b s t r a c t

The electroreductions of 8-quinolinecarboxylic acid and his derivative quinmerac (a quinolinic herbicide) are studied by cyclic and differential pulse voltammetry on mercury electrodes. The use of surfactants was found essential to avoid the adsorption of reactants on the mercury surface.

ادامه مطلب: Electroreduction mechanism of 8-quinolinecarboxylic acid and the herbicide quinmerac on mercury...
 
نوشته شده توسط سيداحمدخزايي دسته: Agriculture Essays ( مقالات كشاورزي)
نمایش از 08 آبان 1391 بازدید: 115
پرینت

Plant cell membrane as a marker for light-dependent and light-independent herbicide mechanisms of action
Franck E. Dayan ⇑, Susan B. Watson
USDA-ARS, Natural Products Utilization Research Unit, P.O. Box 8048, University, MS 38677, USA

a b s t r a c t

Plant cells possess a number of membrane bound organelles that play important roles in compartmentalizing a large number of biochemical pathways and physiological functions that have potentially harmful intermediates or by-products. The plasma membrane is particularly important as it holds the entire cellular structure whole and is at the interface between the cell and its environment. Consequently breaches in the integrity of the lipid bilayer, often via reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced stress membrane peroxidation, result in uncontrolled electrolyte leakage and in cell death.

ادامه مطلب: Plant cell membrane as a marker for light-dependent and light-independent herbicide mechanisms of...
 
نوشته شده توسط سيداحمدخزايي دسته: Agriculture Essays ( مقالات كشاورزي)
نمایش از 08 آبان 1391 بازدید: 115
پرینت

 Evolution and diversity of the mechanisms endowing resistance to herbicides
inhibiting acetolactate-synthase (ALS) in corn poppy (Papaver rhoeas L.)

a INRA, UMR1210 Biologie et Gestion des Adventices, 17 rue Sully, F-21000 Dijon, France
b Istituto di Biologia Agroambientale e Forestale - CNR, Agripolis, viale dell’Università 16, I-35020 Legnaro (PD), Italy

a b s t r a c t

We investigated the diversity of mechanisms conferring resistance to herbicides inhibiting acetolactate synthase (ALS) in corn poppy (Papaver rhoeas L.) and the processes underlying the selection for resistance.
Six mutant ALS alleles, Arg197, His197, Leu197, Ser197, Thr197 and Leu574 were identified in five Italian populations. Different alleles were found in a same population or a same plant. Comparison of individual plant phenotype (herbicide sensitivity) and genotype (amino-acid substitution(s) at codon 197) showed that all mutant ALS alleles conferred dominant resistance to the field rate of the sulfonylurea tribenuron and moderate or no resistance to the field rate of the triazolopyrimidine florasulam. Depending on the allele, ominant or partially dominant resistance to the field rate of the imidazolinone imazamox was observed. Putative non-target-site resistance mechanisms were also likely present in the populations investigated.

ادامه مطلب: Evolution and diversity of the mechanisms endowing resistance to herbicides inhibiting...
 
نوشته شده توسط سيداحمدخزايي دسته: Agriculture Essays ( مقالات كشاورزي)
نمایش از 08 آبان 1391 بازدید: 125
پرینت

 Chlorophyll fluorescence as a marker for herbicide mechanisms of action
Franck E. Dayan a,⇑, Maria Leticia de M. Zaccaro b,1
a USDA-ARS, Natural Products Utilization Research Unit, P.O. Box 8048, University, MS 38677, USA
b Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias, Universidade Estadual Paulista 14884-900, Jaboticabal, SP, Brazil

 

a b s t r a c t

Photosynthesis is the single most important source of O2 and organic chemical energy necessary to support all non-autotrophic life forms. Plants compartmentalize this elaborate biochemical process within chloroplasts in order to safely harness the power of solar energy and convert it into usable chemical units.

ادامه مطلب: Chlorophyll fluorescence as a marker for herbicide mechanisms of action
 
نوشته شده توسط سيداحمدخزايي دسته: Agriculture Essays ( مقالات كشاورزي)
نمایش از 08 آبان 1391 بازدید: 106
پرینت

Herbicide safeners: uses, limitations, metabolism,
and mechanisms of action
Aqel W. Abu-Qare *, Harry J. Duncan
Department of Chemistry, Agricultural, Environmental and Analytical Chemistry, University of Glasgow, Glasgow,
G12 8QQ, Scotland, UK
Received 10 September 2001; received in revised form 18 April 2002; accepted 30 April 2002

 

Abstract
Several methods were examined to minimize crops injury caused by herbicides. Thus increase their selectivity. A selective herbicide is one that controls weeds at rates that do not injure the crop. Herbicides are selective in a particular crop within certain limits imposed by the herbicide, the plant, the application rate, the method and time of application, and environment conditions.

Attachments:
Download this file (Herbicide safeners.pdf)Herbicide safeners.pdf[ ]95 Kb
ادامه مطلب: Herbicide safeners: uses, limitations, metabolism, and mechanisms of action
 
نوشته شده توسط سيداحمدخزايي دسته: Agriculture Essays ( مقالات كشاورزي)
نمایش از 07 آبان 1391 بازدید: 131
پرینت

A mixture of an environmentally realistic concentration of a phthalate and herbicide reduces testosterone in male fathead minnow       

a b s t r a c t

Several chemicals that are used by humans, such as pesticides and plastics, are released into the aquatic environment through wastewater and runoff and have been shown to be potent disruptors of androgen synthesis at high concentrations. Although many of these chemicals have been studied in isolation, a large amount of uncertainty remains over how fish respond to low concentrations of anti-androgenic mixtures, which more accurately reflects how such chemicals are present in the aquatic environment.

ادامه مطلب: A mixture of an environmentally realistic concentration of a phthalate and herbicide reduces...
 
نوشته شده توسط سيداحمدخزايي دسته: Agriculture Essays ( مقالات كشاورزي)
نمایش از 07 آبان 1391 بازدید: 105
پرینت

Removal of phenyl-urea herbicides in natural waters by UF membranes:
Permeate flux, analysis of resistances and rejection coefficients

Juan L. Acero∗, F. Javier Benitez, Francisco J. Real, Carolina García
Departamento de Ingeniería Química y Química Física, University of Extremadura, 06071 Badajoz, Spain

a b s t r a c t

The removal of four phenyl-urea herbicides (linuron, diuron, chlortoluron and isoproturon) dissolved in natural waters by UF membranes was studied in a cross-flow laboratory equipment in batch concentration mode (with recycling of the retentate stream). Two polyethersulfone UF membranes (PW and PT with MWCO of 20,000 and 5000 Da) and a thin film composite membrane (GK with MWCO of 2000 Da) were used. The influence of the main operating conditions (transmembrane pressure, initial concentration of herbicides and MWCO of the membranes) on the steady-state permeate flux was established.

Attachments:
Download this file (Removal of phenyl-urea herbicides.pdf)Removal of phenyl-urea herbicides.pdf[ ]354 Kb
ادامه مطلب: Removal of phenyl-urea herbicides in natural waters by UF membranes
 
نوشته شده توسط سيداحمدخزايي دسته: Agriculture Essays ( مقالات كشاورزي)
نمایش از 12 مهر 1391 بازدید: 182
پرینت

 Soil salinity affects various physiological and biochemical processes which result in reduced biomass production. This adverse effect of salt stress appears on whole plant level at almost all growth stages including germination, seedling, vegetative and maturity stages. However, tolerance to salt stress at different plant developmental stages varies from species to species. The plant response to salt stress consists of numerous processes that must function in coordination to alleviate both cellular hyperosmolarity and ion disequilibrium. Salt tolerance and yield stability are complex genetic traits that are difficult to establish in crops since salt stress may occur as a catastrophic episode, be imposed continuously or intermittently and become gradually more severe at any stage during development. The objective of this review is to summarize the morphological, physiological and biochemical aspects of plants under salt stress. It was then concluded that salt stress affects plant physiology at whole plant as well as cellular levels through osmotic and ionic adjustments that result in reduced biomass production. This adverse effect of salt stress appears on whole plant level at almost all growth stages including germination, seedling, vegetative and maturity stages. Despite causing osmotic and ionic

stress, salinity causes ionic imbalances that may impair the selectivity of root membranes and induce potassium deficiency

 

ادامه مطلب: Fatality of salt stress to plants: Morphological,physiological and biochemical aspects
 

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