نوشته شده توسط سيداحمدخزايي دسته: muslims Scientists
نمایش از 11 آذر 1393 بازدید: 89
پرینت

The father of algebra: Abu Jaafar Mohammad Ibn Mousa Al Khwarizmi

Al Khwarizmi’s contributions to mathematics and astronomy centuries ago haven’t gone unnoticed. A crater on the Moon is named after him

    By Joseph A. Kéchichian Senior Writer
    Published: 21:30 September 19, 2013

 Although Babylonians invented algebra and Greek and Hindu mathematicians preceded the great Frenchman François Viète — who refined the discipline as we know it today — it was Abu Jaafar Mohammad Ibn Mousa Al Khwarizmi (AD780-850) who perfected it.

He used Al Jabr (algebra) in the title of a justifiably renowned study that became a classic textbook in leading universities for centuries: the “Hisab Al Jabr wal-Muqabalah” (The Book of Integration and Equation), introduced the use of Indo-Arabic numerals that, over time, came to be known as algorithms.

Indeed, algorithm is a Latin derivative of Al Khwarizmi’s name, and rather than attributing the collective work of many mathematicians to the scholar, it is safe to grant him grandfatherhood.

This would prevent excessive praise, though his introduction of the zero as a placeholder in equations paved the way for the development of the decimal system that, in this instance, was an exclusive and accurate attribution.

Undoubtedly one of the greatest mathematicians ever, Al Khwarizmi died in Baghdad before his 70th birthday, unaware that his work had changed history.

Early life and times

Though little is known of Al Khwarizmi’s life, his last name may suggest that he was from Khwarizm, in today’s Uzbekistan, which was under Persian control when he was born around AD780. Al Tabari refers to the mathematician as “Al Qutrubbulli”, which suggests that he may have been born in Qutrubbull, a district between the Tigris and Euphrates not far from Baghdad. Al Khwarizmi, whose ancestors may have come from Uzbekistan and may have been adherents of the old Zoroastrian religion, settled in Baghdad. Even if he had Persian roots, he became a pious orthodox Sunni, as he described himself in the introduction to his algebra.

ادامه مطلب: The father of algebra: Abu Jaafar Mohammad Ibn Mousa Al Khwarizmi
 
نوشته شده توسط سيداحمدخزايي دسته: muslims Scientists
نمایش از 11 آذر 1393 بازدید: 84
پرینت

Al-Khwārizmī
Alternate title: Muḥammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī

al-Khwārizmī, in full Muḥammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī   (born c. 780, Baghdad, Iraq—died c. 850), Muslim mathematician and astronomer whose major works introduced Hindu-Arabic numerals and the concepts of algebra into European mathematics. Latinized versions of his name and of his most famous book title live on in the terms algorithm and algebra.


Al-Khwārizmī lived in Baghdad, where he worked at the “House of Wisdom” (Dār al-Ḥikma) under the caliphate of al-Maʾmūn. (The House of Wisdom acquired and translated scientific and philosophic treatises, particularly Greek, as well as publishing original research.) Al-Kwārizmī’s work on elementary algebra, al-Kitāb al-mukhtaṣar fī ḥisāb al-jabr waʾl-muqābala (“The Compendious Book on Calculation by Completion and Balancing”), was translated into Latin in the 12th century, from which the title and term Algebra derives. Algebra is a compilation of rules, together with demonstrations, for finding solutions of linear and quadratic equations based on intuitive geometric arguments, rather than the abstract notation now associated with the subject. Its systematic, demonstrative approach distinguishes it from earlier treatments of the subject. It also contains sections on calculating areas and volumes of geometric figures and on the use of algebra to solve inheritance problems according to proportions prescribed by Islamic law. Elements within the work can be traced from Babylonian mathematics of the early 2nd millennium bc through Hellenistic, Hebrew, and Hindu treatises.

ادامه مطلب: Al-Khwārizmī
 
نوشته شده توسط سيداحمدخزايي دسته: muslims Scientists
نمایش از 11 آذر 1393 بازدید: 83
پرینت

Al Khwarizmi

Al-Khwarizmi-the Father of Algebra

Contributed by Prof. Dr. Ibrahim B. Syed

Abu Ja’far Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi, (780 – 850 CE), was the grandfather of computer science and the father of Algebra. He was the popularizer of Arabic numerals, adopter of zero (the symbol, that is) and the decimal system, astronomer, cartographer, in briefs an encyclopedic scholar.

BAYT Al-HIKMA (House of Wisdom)

In the year 832, Caliph Al Ma’mun [b. Baghdad, 786, d. Tarsus, Cilicia, August 833] founded the “House of Wisdom” in Baghdad, a center for study and research similar to the earlier Museum in Alexandria. Its most famous scholars were the mathematicians Muhammad ibn Musa Al-Khwarizmi and the Banu Musa (“sons of Moses”), three brothers who directed the translation of Greek works from Antiquity. (7)

The modern word algorithm is derived from the name, al-Khwarizmi, the best mathematician of his age, thanks to his book, al-Kitab al-mukhtasar fi Hisab al-jabr w’al-muqabala, (a book showing how to solve equations and problems derived from ordinary life) which means “The Compendious Book on Calculation by Completion and Balancing”, which later evolved into algebra, was the first written text on the subject. In al-Khwarizmi’s time, algebra was a practical system for solving all kinds of problems “in cases of inheritance, contracts, surveying, tax collection, legacies, partition, lawsuits, and trade, and in all their dealings with one another, or where the measuring of lands, the digging of canals, geometrical computations, and other objects of various sorts and kinds are concerned.” Al-jabr was about removing the negative terms from an equation, while al-muqabala meant “balancing” the values of an equation across an equals sign.

ادامه مطلب: Al Khwarizmi
 

بانک اطلاعات دارو - داروشناسی

آشنایی با انواع داروها

عوارض انواع داروها و....

 -----------

ورود

حاضرين در سايت

ما 238 مهمان و بدون عضو آنلاین داریم

برای حمایت از ما امتیاز دهید